Noun Clauses

Posted: Mei 8, 2012 in Uncategorized

Pengertian noun clause

Noun clause adalah klausa yang berfungsi sebagai nomina. Karena fungsinya sebagai nomina, maka noun clause dapat menduduki posisi-posisi berikut:

  1. Subjek kalimat (subject of a sentence)
  2. Objek verba transitif (object of a transitive verb)
  3. Objek preposisi (object of a preposition)
  4. Pelengkap (complement)
  5. Pemberi keterangan tambahan (noun in apposition

What are relative clauses?

relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a noun phrase.

Example:

The man who is smoking is the murderer

The noun the man is modified by the relative clause who is smoking.

Relative clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about.

How to use relative clauses

They are used to provide extra information. This information can either:

  • define something (defining clause),
    Example:
    The girl who is standing there is a world champion in karate.
  • or provide unnecessary, but interesting information (non-defining clause).
    Example:
    Michael Jackson, who was a famous singer, died of an overdose.

Relative clauses can be introduced by:

  1. A relative pronoun: who, whom, which, that, whose.

    Example: “The man who is standing there is a famous writer.”

  2. A relative adverb: where, why and when.

    Example: ” The restaurant where I have dinner is nice.”

  3. None of them.

    Example: “The man I met is extremly wealthy”

Relative Pronouns

who – subject or object pronoun for people

They caught the lady who killed her baby.

which – subject or object pronoun

I read the book which is on the table.
I visited the town which you told me about.

which – referring to a whole sentence

They were unsuccessful which is disappointing.

whom – used for object pronoun for people, especially in non-restrictive relative clauses (in restrictive relative clauses use who)

The boy whom you told me about got the best grades in mathematics.

that – subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in restrictive relative clauses (who or which are also possible)

I like the vase that is over there.

Relative adverbs

where – referring to a place

The restaurant where I usually have dinner is nice.

when – referring to a time

There are times when I feel so lonely.

why – referring to a reason

This is why she refused the offer.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

You can distinguish subject and object pronouns as follows:

  • If the relative pronoun is not followed by a noun or pronoun, it is a subject pronounSubject relative pronouns can never be omitted (dropped.)
    Example:
    The apple which is lying on the table is sweet.
    The teacher who lives next door is nice.
  • If the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun, the relative pronoun is an object pronounObject relative pronounscan be omitted (dropped) in restrictive (defining) relative clauses.
    Example:
    The film (which) we watched yesterday was fantastic.
    The writer (who/whomwe met last weekend is very famous.

Restrictive Relative Clauses

1. Restrictive (identifying or defining) relative clauses give detailed necessary information. They are not put between commas.

I know the man who is standing there

2. These clauses are often used in definitions.

A novelist is someone who writes novels.

3. Object pronouns in these clauses can be omitted (dropped.)

Example:
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is from New York.

Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses

Non- restrictive (non-identifying or non- defining) relative clauses give interesting additional information which is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. These clauses are put between commas.

Example:
Martin Luther king, who was known for his fight for the civil rights, was assassinated in 1968.

Note:

In non restrictive relative clauses:

1. who/which may not be replaced with that.

Example:
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
NOT
Jim, that we met yesterday, is very nice.

2. Object relative pronouns cannot be dropped.

Example:
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
NOT
Jim,we met yesterday, is very nice.

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-relative-clauses.php

 

sample question:

  1. A lion is an animal. It is very strong.

Answer :  A lion is an animal which is very strong .

  1. A novelist is a person (write novels) .

Answer : A novelist is a person who writes novels.

  1. A bottle opener is a device (open bottles) .

Answer : A bottle opener is a device which opens bottles.

  1. The girl speaks Chinese (her mother write poems) .

Answer : The girl whose mother writes poems speaks Chinese.

  1. A detective is someone (discover the truth about crimes).

Answer : A detective is someone who discovers the truth about crimes.

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-relative-clauses.php

Concessive clause

concessive clause is a clause which begins with “although” or “even though” and which expresses an idea that suggests the opposite of the main part of the sentence.

The sentence “Although he’s quiet, he’s not shy” begins with a concessive clause- “Although he’s quiet ” which has an opposite meaning of – “he’s not shy” which is the main part of the sentence.

NOTE: ” In spite of” , ” despite” have similar meaning to “although” or “even though“. BUT they don’t introduce clauses. They have different syntax. They are followed by nouns or gerunds (verb+ing.) They don’t introduce a clause (subject + verb.)

Although, even though:

Study these examples:

“He had enough money.”
” He refused to buy a new car.”

The above two statements can be combined as follows :

Although 
Even though

he had enough money,

he refused to buy a new car

OR

He refused to buy a new car

although 
even though

he had enough money.

Structure:

“Although”, and “even though” introduce concessive clauses.

Although /even though

subject

verb

Examples:

Although it was raining, he walked to the station.
Even though she is very old, she runs fast.

Despite / in spite of:

Despite and in spite of do not introduce a concessive clause. They are rather followed by a noun or a verb+ing form.

Study this example:

“He had enough money.”
“He refused to buy a new car.”

The above two statements can be combined as follows :

Despite
In spite of 

all his money,

he refused to buy a new car.

having enough money,

OR

He refused to buy a new car

despite
in spite of

all his money.

having enough money.

Structure

Despite / in spite of

+ a noun,

verb + ing.

Examples:

Despite /in spite of the rain, he walked to the station.
Despite /in spite of being tired, he walked to the station.

Remember:

1. Although, even though + subject + verb (Concessive clause)

3. In spite of, despite + noun or verb+ing (Not a concessive clause)

2. There are structural similarities between:

  • “in spite of”, “despite” and “although”, “even though”
  • “because of”, “due to”, “owing to”, “thanks to” and “because”, “since ,”as”, “for”. (Expressing cause and effect)

In spite of
Despite

+ noun

Because of
Due to
owing to
Thanks to

Although
Even though

+ verb

Because
Since
For
As

More on cause and effect to see the use of “because, since, as, for, because of, due to … ”

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-concessions.php

 

Sample question :

  1. 1.       Although she is beautiful, everybody hates her.
  2. 2.       The children slept deeply in spite of  the noise.
  3. 3.       In spite of  earning a low salary, Sara helped her parents
  4. 4.       Jane rarely sees Alan although  they are neighbors.
  5. 5.       Kate did not do well in the exam in spite of  working very hard.
  6. 6.       Although  I was very hungry, I couldn’t eat.
  7. 7.       In spite of  the difficulty, they managed to solve the math problem.
  8. 8.       Liza never talked to him although  she loved him.
  9. 9.       Although  it was cold, Marie didn’t put on her coat.
  10. 10.    Clare did the work in spite of  being ill.
  11. 11.   Although  the weather was bad, we had a good time.
  12. 12.   In spite of  all our hard work, a lot of things went wrong.
  13. 13.   Although  we had planned everything carefully, a lot of things went wrong.
  14. 14.   I went to hospital because  I was feeling very ill.
  15. 15.   I went to work the next day although  I was still feeling ill.
  16. 16.   She accepted the job in spite of  the low salary.
  17. 17.   She refused the job because of  the low salary.
  18. 18.   I managed to sleep although the hotel was noisy.
  19. 19.   I couldn’t get to sleep because of  the noise.
  20. 20.   He runs fast in spite of  his old age.

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-although.php

Countable and uncountable nouns

You will learn about countable and uncountable nouns. but before you continue the lesson, look at the following chart and study the nouns.

Countable

Uncountable

books

money

friends

meat

teachers

juice

tables

milk

Countable nouns (count nouns):

Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number- they can be counted. (That’s why they are called “countable nouns”).

Example:

1 friend, 2 friends, 3 friends…
1 book, 2 books, 3 books…

Countable nouns take many.

Example:
100 friends – many friends

Uncountable nouns (uncount nouns):

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number- they can’t be counted. (That’s why they are called “uncountable nouns”).

Examples:

I have a lot of money. (Not 1000 money)
You say I drink a lot of milk. (Not 5 milk)

Uncountable nouns take much.

Example:

100 money – much money

Note: Of course you can count money, milk, meat; but then you would use the currency, litre, kilo, glass,…and say that you have got:

  • 5 euro or dollars… (but not 5 money).
  • 2 litres, pints, glasses… of milk (but not 2 milk)
  • 3 kilos… of meat (but not 3 meat)
  • 10 bottles of mineral water… (but not 10 mineral water)

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-countable-uncountable-nouns.php

 

 

sample question :

Decide whether these nouns are countable (C) or uncountable (U)

  1. The children are playing in the garden. C
  2. I don’t like milk. U
  3. I prefer teaUncountable
  4. Scientists say that the envirenment is threatened by pollution. C
  5. My mother uses butter to prepare cakes. U
  6. There are a lot of windows in our classroom. C
  7. We need some glue to fix this vase. U
  8. The waiters in this restaurant are very professional. C
  9. My father drinks two big glasses of water every morning. C
  10. The bread my mother prepares is delicious. U
  11. Drivers must be careful; the road is slippery. C
  12. Some policemen are organizing road traffic to avoid any accidents. C
  13. I bought three bottles of mineral water for our picnic. C
  14. I’d like some juice please! U
  15. Successful condidates will join the camp later this year. C
  16. A rise in oil prices is inevitable since there is more and more worl demand for energy. U
  17. The exercises on this website are interesting. C
  18. Dehydrated babies must drink a lot of waterU
  19. Adult illiterates learn through a special government programme. C
  20. I met some nice people when I was walking along the beach. C

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-countable-uncountable-nouns.phphttp://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-countable-uncountable-nouns.phphttp://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-countable-uncountable-nouns.phpTop of Form

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